Sesamum indicum and Trichilia heudelotii N-hexane and Ethanol Extracts: Ef-fective Remedy Against Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomeli-dae) Infesting Cowpea Grains
Synthetic pesticides usage to prevent cowpea weevils have been reported to be harmful, sometimes leading to the untimely demise of consumers by ingestion of contaminated grains. To save lives, efforts are intensely made to seek after safer alternatives one in particular, is the use of plant based biopesticides. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of N-hexane and ethanol extracts of both sesame leaf and seed and; Trichilia heudelotii leaf to control Callosobruchus maculatus infesting grains of cowpea. Methods employed involved dressing cowpea seeds (100 g) with the botanical extracts at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ml respectively. Next, six pairs of newly emerged adult C. maculatus were introduced into glass vials containing treated seeds in three replicates and observation was conducted for; adult mortality; emergence of larvae, pupae, and new adults of the insect; weight loss of cowpea grains and; qualitative phytochemical screening. Results presented revealed that the N-hexane and ethanol extracts of both sesame and T. heudelotii were significantly (p < 0.05) effective mostly at 1.5 ml in controlling the weevil when compared to the control. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of some useful bioactive compounds in the extracts. Observation on weight loss of cowpea revealed that all the various treatment especially at 1.5 ml sustained a significant (p < 0.05) weight compared to the control (40.00±6.67) which was lower. A plausible usage of homemade biopesticide using sesame and T. heudelotii could be suggested as additives to cowpea grains in the control of C. maculatus.
Abdullahi, Y. M. & Muhammad, S. (2004). Assessment of the toxic potentials of some plant powders on survival and development of Callosobruchus maculatus. Afr. J. Biotech. 3:60-64.
Ahmed, K. S., Itino, T. & Ichikawa, T. (2003). Duration of developmental stages of Callosobruchus chinensis L (Coleoptera:Bruchidae) on azuki bean and the effects of neem and sesame oils at different stages of their development. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 6, 932-935.
Akyaw, M. O., Baidoo, P. K. & Mochiah, M. B. (2014). The effect of time harvest on the damage caused to cowpea by storage bettle, Callosobruchus maculatus (FAB.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Global advanced research journal of agricultural science, Vol. 3(11) pp. 351-355.
Al-Lawati, H. T., Azam, K. M. & Deadman M. L. (2002a). Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of Subtropical Plant Extracts Against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Agric. Sci. 7, 37-45.
Al-Lawati, H. T., Azam, K. M. & Deadman M. L. (2002b). Potential of Omani Flora as Source of Natural Products for Control of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Agric. Sci. 7, 59-63.
Anilakumar, K. R., A. Pal, F. Khanum, & A. S. Bawa, (2010). “Nutritional, medicinal and industrial uses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds - An overview.” Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 75 (4), 2010, 159-168.
Asante, S. K, Tamo, M. & Jackai, L. E. N. (2001). Integrated management of cowpea pest using elite cultivars, date of planting and minimum insecticide application. Afr Crops Sci J 9(4):655–665
Asiwe, J. A. N., Belane, D. & Dakora, F. D. (2009). Evaluation of cowpea breeding lines for nitrogen fixation at ARC-Grain Crops Institute, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Abstract, the 16th International Congress on Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Montana, USA, pp 14–19
Boukar, O. & Fatokun, C. (2009). Strategies in cowpea breeding. In Zerihun T (ed) New approaches to plant breeding of orphan crops in Africa: proceedings of an international conference, 19–21 September 2007, Bern, Switzerland, pp 69–92
Brisibe, E.A, Adugbo, S.E, Ekanem, U, Brisibe, F. and Figueira, G.M (2011). Controlling Bruchid Pests of Stored Cowpea Seeds with Dried leaves of Artesmisia annua and Two Other Common Botanicals. Africa Journal of Biotechnology.10(47), pp.9586-9592.
Coulibaly, O., Alene, A. D., Manyong, V., Sanogo, D., Abdoulaye, T., Chianu, J., Fatokun, C. et al. (2009). Situation and outlook for cowpea and soybean in sub-saharan Africa. II Project in West and East Africa
Curcino-Viera, I. J., Silva-Terra, W., Dos Santos, G. M. & Braz-Filho, R. (2014). Secondary metabolites of the genus Trichilia: contribution to the chemistry of Meliaceae family. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry 5, 91–121.
Dugje, I.Y., L.O. Omoigui, F Ekeleme, A. Y. Kamara, and H. Ajeigbe. (2009). Farmers’ Guide to Cowpea Production in West Africa. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. p20.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations), (2005). The state of food and agriculture. Document prepared for the International Conference on Worlds’ state of food. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Garcia-Gomez, A., Figueroa-Brito, R., Garcia-Serrano, L. A., & Jimenez-Perez, A. (2019). Trichilia (Meliaceae) plants: an important source of biomolecules with insecticidal properties. Florida Entomologist 101(3), 470-479.
Gwary, O. M., Hati, S. S., Dimari, G. A., & Ogugbuaja, V. O. (2012). Pesticide residues in bean samples from Northeastern Nigeria. J Sci Technol 2(2), 97-84.
Harborne, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall Ltd
Jackai, L. E. N. & Daoust, R. A. (1986). Insect pests of cowpeas. Annu Rev Entomol, 31:95–119
Karungi, J., Adipala, E., Ogenga-Latigo, M. W. et al (2000). Pest management in cowpea. PartI. Influence of planting time and plant density on cowpea field pest infestation in eastern Uganda. Crop Prot 19:231– 236
Khalequzzaman, M., Hussain, Shah, Mahdi, Ahmad and Osman, Goni S. H. M. (2007). Efficacy of edible oils in the control of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. in stored pigeonpea. Univ. j. zool. Rajshahi Univ. 26, 89-92
Langyintuo, A. S & Lowenberg, D. J. (2006). Potential regional trade implication of adopting Bt cowpea in) West and Central Africa. Back Issues Index, 9(2): 38-42.
López-Olguín, J. F. (1998). Actividad y modo de acción de productos de Trichilia havanensis Jacq. y Scutellaria alpina subsp. javalambrensis (Pau), sobre Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) y Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). Tesis de Doctorado. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Madrid, España.
Mukanga, M., Deedat, Y. and Mwangata, F.S. (2010). Toxic effects of five plant extracts against the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 5(24): 3369- 3378.
Mulatu, B. & Gebremedhin T, (2000). Oviposition-deterrent and toxic effects of various botanicals on the Adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. Insect Sci Applica, 20(1):33–38.
Oyewale, R. O. & Bamaiyi, L. J. (2013). Management of cowpea insect pests. Sch Acad J Biosci (SAJB) 1(5):217– 226
Rachie, K. O. (1985). Introduction. In: Singh SR, Rachie KO (eds) Cowpea research production and utilization. Wiley, London
Salako. E.A., Anjorin, S.T., Garba, C.D. and Omolohunnu, E.B. (2008). A review of neem biopesticide utilization and challenges in Central Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (25), pp. 4758-4764. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB.
Schoonhoven, A. V. (1978). The use of vegetable oils to protect stored beans from bruchid attack. J. Econ. Entomol. 71, 254-256.
Sengottayan, S. N. (2013). Physiological and biochemical effect of neem and other Meliaceae plants secondary metabolites against Lepidopteran insects. Frontiers in Physiology 4, 359.
Shaaya, E. & Ikan, R. (1978). The effectiveness of vegetable oils in the control of Callosobruchus maculutus. Institute for Technology and Storage of Agricultural Products, Department of Scientific Publications, Special Publication 216, Bet-Dagan, Israel. 39 pp.
Shaibu, I. (2008). 30 agrochemical products banned in Nigeria after deaths. Vanguard [Internet]. Available from: https://www.organicconsumers.org/news/30-agrochemical-productsbanned-nigeria-after-deaths Assessed May 17, 2020
Singh, B. B. (2014). Cowpea: the food legume of the 21st century. Crop Sci Soc Am, Madison
Singh, S. R. & Jackai, L. E. N. (1985). Insect pests of cowpeas in Africa: their life cycle, economic importance and potential for control. Cowpea Res. Prod Util, pp 217–231
Singh, S. R., Luse, R. A., Leuschrer, L. K. & Nangju, D. (1978). Groundnut oil treatment for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) during cowpea storage. J. stored Prod. Res. 14: 77-80.
Sofowora, L. A. (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa spectrum. Books Ltd.
Strong, R. G., Partida, G. J. & Warner, D. N. (1968). Rearing stored product insects for laboratory studies, bean and cowpea weevil. J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 747-751.
Timko, M. P., Ehlers, J. D. and Roberts, P. A., (2007). Cowpea : In Genome Mapping and traditional vegetables in Tanzania. Technical Bulletin No. 40. AVRDC—The World Vegetable Center, Shanhua, Taiwan. 53 pp.
Togola, A., Boukar, O., Belko, N., Chamarthi, S. K., Fatokun, C., Tamo, M. & Oigiangbe, N. (2017). Host plant resistance to insect pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L. Walp): achievements and future prospects. Euphytica, 213(239): 1-16.
Trease, G. E. & Evans, W. C. (1989). Pharmacognosy. Bailliere Tindall
Udo, I. O. & Harry, G. I. (2013). Effect of groundnut oil in protecting stored cowpea; Vigna unguiculata from attack by cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. J Biol Agric Health Care, 3(1):89-92.
Wakili, A. M. (2013). Economic analysis of cow-pea production in Nigeria. Russian J. of Agric. and Socio-Economic Sci, 1(13): 60 – 63.
Wheeler, D. & Isman, M. (2001). Antifeedant and toxic activity of Trichilia Americana extract against the larvae of Spodoptera litura. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 98, 9–16.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Bu eser Creative Commons Alıntı-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.