Identification and Characterization of White Mold Disease (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in Globe Artichoke

Mehmet Aydoğdu, İlker Kurbetli


Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an economically important plant that is cultivated over 30 countries in the world. In 2017, wilting and lodging symptoms were observed on globe artichoke plants in three locations (Serik-Gebiz, Serik-Karadayı and Gazipaşa-Bakılar) in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. To determine the cause of the symptoms, samples from necrotic tissues were cultured in vitro. Based on the morphological and ITS sequences, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Pathogenicity test was conducted using cv. Bayrampaşa in the greenhouse. Three isolates (Ser3, Ser4 and Gzp3) of S. sclerotiorum were characterized on the basis of mycelial compatibility, colony radial growth, sclerotia formation, sclerotia size, sclerotia weight and sclerotia number. Virulence of the isolates was also determined using detached leaf technique. No mycelial compatibility was detected among the isolates. Significant (P<0.01) differences were found in the examined morphological features and virulence of the isolates. Gzp3 was the most virulent isolate forming average 8.60 cm lesion length. However, lesion lengths formed by the other isolates, Ser3 and Ser4, were average 4.16 and 1.93 cm, respectively. This is the first detailed characterization of S. sclerotiorum causing crown and stalk rot in globe artichoke.


Cynara scolymus White Mold Identification Characterization

Full Text:



Afroz T, Lee H-S, Jeon Y-A, Sung J-S, Rhee J-H, Assefa AD, Noh J, Hwang A, Hur O-S, Ro N-Y, Lee J-E, Lee M-C (2019). Evaluation of different inoculation methods for screening of Sclerotinia rot and Phytophthora blight in perilla germplasm. Jo-urnal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 22(2): 177-183.

Allan J, Regmi R, Denton-Giles M, Kamphuis LG, Derbyshire MC (2019). The host generalist phyto-pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum diffe-rentially expresses multiple metabolic enzymes on two different plant hosts. Scientific Reports 9: 19966. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56396-w

Barari H, Alavi V, Badalyan SM (2012). Genetic and morphological mifferences among mopulations of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by microsatellite markers, mycelia compatibility groups (Mcgs) and aggressi-veness in north of Iran. Romanian Agricultural Re-search 29: 323-331.

Bolton MD, Thomma BPHJ, Nelson BD (2006). Scle-rotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary: biology and molecular traits of a cosmopolitan pathogen. Mole-cular Plant Pathology 7(1): 1-16.

Brosten BS, Sands DC (1986). Field trials of Sclero-tinia sclerotiorum to control Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). Weed Science 34: 377-380.

Clarkson JP, Fawcett L, Anthony SG, Young C (2014). A model for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection and disease development in lettuce, based on the effects of temperature, relative humidity and ascospore density. PLoS One 9(4): e94049.

Davar R, Darvishzadeh R, Majd A (2011). Genotype-isolate interaction for resistance to Sclerotinia scle-rotiorum in sunflower. Phytopathologia Mediter-ranea 50(3): 442-449.

Davar R, Darvishzadeh R, Majd A, Kharabian Ma-souleh A, Ghosta Y (2012). The infection processes of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in basal stem tissue of a susceptible genotype of Helianthus annuus L. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 40(1): 143-149.

FAO (2020). FAOSTAT. [] (Date of access: 15.03.2020).

Foley ME, Doğramacı M, West M, Underwood WR (2016). Environmental factors for germination of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia. Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology 7: 379. Doi: 10.4172/2157-7471.1000379

Grabowski MA, Malvick DK (2017). Evaluation of ornamental tropical plants for resistance to white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Hortsci-ence 52(10): 1375-1379.

Kapatia A, Gupta T, Sharma M, Khan A, Kulshrestha S (2016). Isolation and analysis of genetic diversity amongst Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates infecting cauliflower and pea. Indian Journal of Biotechno-logy 15: 589-595.

Karimi E, Safaie N, Shams-Bakhsh M (2012). Mycelial compatibility groupings and pathogenic diversity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary populations on canola in Golestan province of Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 14: 421-434.

Kohn LM, Carbone I, Anderson JB (1990). Mycelial interactions in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Experi-mental Mycology 14: 255-267.

Kull LS, Pedersen WL, Palmquist D, Hartman GL (2004). Mycelial compatibility grouping and ag-gressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Dis-ease 88: 325-332.

Lane DW, Kamphuis LG, Derbyshire MC, Denton-Giles M (2018). Heat-dried sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum myceliogenically germinate in water and are able to infect Brassica napus. Crop & Pas-ture Science 69: 765-774.

Lattanzio V, Kroon PA, Linsalata V, Cardinali A (2009). Globe artichoke: a functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. Journal of Functional Foods 1(2): 131-144.

Li CX, Li H, Sivasithamparam K, Fu TD, Li YC, Liu SY, Barbetti MJ (2006). Expression of field re-sistance under western Australian conditions to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Chinese and Australian Brassica napus and Brassica juncea germplasm and its relation with stem diameter. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57: 1131-1135.

Liu J, Meng Q, Zhang Y, Xiang H, Li Y, Shi F, Ma L, Liu C, Liu Y, Su B, Li Z (2018). Mycelial compati-bility group and genetic variation of sunflower Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in northeast China. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 102: 185-192.

Mahalingam T, Chen W, Rajapakse CS, Somachandra KP, Attanayake RN (2020). Genetic diversity and recombination in the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum detected in Sri Lanka. Pathogens 9: 306.

McCaghey M, Willbur J, Smith DL, Kabbage M (2019). The complexity of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathosystem in soybean: virulence factors, re-sistance mechanisms, and their exploitation to con-trol sclerotinia stem rot. Tropical Plant Pathology 44: 12-22.

Meinhardt LW, Wulff NA, Bellato CM, Tsai SM (2002). Telomere and microsatellite primers reveal diversity among Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira 27: 211-215.

Mert-Türk F, Ipek M, Mermer D, Nicholson P (2007). Microsatellite and morphological markers reveal genetic variation within a population of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from oilseed rape in the Çanakkale province of Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology 155(3): 182-187.

Otto-Hanson L, Steadman JR, Higgins R, Eskridge KM (2011). Variation in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum bean isolates from multisite resistance screening locati-ons. Plant Disease 95: 1370-1377.

Rahman MME, Suzuki K, Islam MM, Dey TK, Harada N, Hossain DM (2020). Molecular characterization, mycelial compatibility grouping, and aggressiveness of a newly emerging phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, causing white mold disease in new host crops in Bangladesh. Journal of Plant Pathology Doi: 10.1007/s42161-020-00503-8.

Schafer MR, Kohn LM (2006). An optimized method for mycelial compatibility testing in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mycologia 98(4): 593-597.

Sexton AC, Whitten AR, Howlett BJ (2006). Popula-tion structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in an Australian canola field at flowering and stem-infection stages of the disease cycle. Genome 49: 1408-1415.

Smolińska U, Kowalska B (2018). Biological control of the soil-borne fungal pathogen Sclerotinia scle-rotiorum - a review. Journal of Plant Pathology 100: 1-12.

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor JW (1990). Amplifi-cation and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications, eds. Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ pp. 315-322, Inc. New York, USA.

Yanar Y, Onaran A (2011). Mycelial compatibility groups and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia scleroti-orum (Lib.) De Bary causal agent of white mold disease of greenhouse grown cucumber in Antalya-Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(19): 3739-3746.

Zanatta TP, Kulczynski SM, Guterres CW, Fontana D C, Meira D, Ceolin EL, Balem E, Trevisan M, Par-aginski JA, Buffon PA (2019). Morphological and patogenic characterization of Sclerotinia scleroti-orum. Journal of Agricultural Science 11(8): 302-313.

Zancan WLA, Machado JdC, Baute NL, de Sousa BFM (2015). Relationship between mycelial inocu-lum of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and performance of sunflower seeds under controlled conditions. Bio-science Journal 31(3): 775-784.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Lisansı
Bu eser Creative Commons Alıntı-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.