The Effects of Fungicidal Seed Treatments on Seed Germination, Mean Germination Time and Seedling Growth in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Nurgül Ergin, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Mehmet Demir Kaya


Seed-borne pathogens cause incorrect scores determining seed germination rate in safflower. A laboratory experiment was planned to search for an effective fungicide treatment for safflower seeds inhibiting the seed-borne infections during germination and early seedling growth. Two safflower cultivars (Olas and Linas) and five fungicides (Thiram, maneb, mancozeb, metalaxyl, and captan) were tested. Germination, mean germination time, and seedling growth parameters were investigated for determining the effectiveness of the fungicides. Results showed that germination percentage was not adversely affected by the fungicides and a higher germination percentage was obtained from the seeds treated with fungicides. Mean germination time shortened with fungicide treatments and more rapid germination was observed in thiram and metalaxyl. Fungicides increased root and shoot growth, especially in thriam and metalaxyl. The seedling weight of safflower cultivars was not changed by the application of fungicides. The infection rate of two safflower cultivars was different and untreated seeds of cv. Olas were infected. The seeds treated with fungicides successfully prevented the seed-borne infections, the minimum infection rate was obtained from the seeds treated with thiram, maneb and mancozeb. It was concluded that pretreatment of safflower seeds with thriam or mancozeb should be beneficial for avoiding seed-borne pathogens before germination test, and these applications may be tested under field conditions in terms of emergence and seed yield performance.


Carthamus tinctorius L.; Cultivar; Germination; Pathogen; Fungicide treatment

Full Text:



Addrah ME, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Liu L, Zhou H, Chen W, Zhao J (2020). Fungicide treatments to control seed-borne fungi of sunflower seeds. Pathogens 9(1): 29.

Akgül DS, Ozgönen H, Erkilic A (2011). The effects of seed treatments with fungicides on stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in peanut. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(6): 2991-2996.

Arshad Javaid AA, Akhtar N, Hanif M, Farooq MA (2006). Efficacy of some fungicides against seed-borne mycoflora of wheat. Mycopath 4(1): 45-49.

Bardin SD, Huang HC, Liu L, Yanke LJ (2003). Control, by microbial seed treatment, of damping off caused by Pythium sp. on canola, safflower, dry pea, and sugar beet. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 25(3): 268-275.

Chattopadhyay C, Kolte SJ, Waliyar F (2015). Diseases of edible oilseed crops. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. 455, New York

Choudhary CS, Jain SC, Kumar R, Choudhary JS (2013). Efficacy of different fungicides, biocides and botanical extract seed treatment for controlling seed borne Colletotrichum sp. in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). The Bioscan 8(1): 123-126.

Costa EM, Nunes BM, Ventura MV, Mortate RK, Vilarinho MS, Da Silva RM, Bessa MM (2019). Physiological effects of insecticides and fungicide, applied in the treatment of seeds, on the germination and vigor of soybean seeds. The Journal of Agricultural Science 11: 318-324.

Dhanamanjuri W, Thoudam R, Dutta BK (2013). Effect of some pesticides (fungicides) on the germination and growth of seeds/seedlings of some crop plants (i.e. Cicer arietinum and Zea mays). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 17(5): 627-632.

Düzgüneş O, Kesici T, Gürbüz F (1983). Statistic Meth-ods 1. Ankara Univ., Fac. of Agric. Publ. No: 861, Lesson Book No: 22, Ankara-Turkey. (in Turkish)

Ellis ML, Broders KD, Paul PA, Dorrance AE (2011). Infection of soybean seed by Fusarium graminearum and effect of seed treatments on disease under controlled conditions. Plant Disease 95(4): 401-407.

Ergin N, Kulan E, Gözükara M A, Kaya M F, Çetin ŞÖ, Kaya MD (2021). Response of germination and seedling development of cotton to salinity under optimal and suboptimal temperatures. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi 24(1): 108-115.

Gawade S, Borkar S, Suryawanshi A, Zanjare S, Shinde V (2016). Efficacy of fungicides and bioagents against ınternal seed borne pathogen of soybean. Advances in Life Sciences 28: 1250-1258.

Habib A, Sahi ST, Ghazanfer MU, Ali S (2007). Evaluation of some fungicides against seed born mycoflora of eggplant and their comparative efficacy regarding seed germination. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 9(3): 519-520.

Ibiam OFA, Umechuruba CI, Arinze AE (2008). In vitro seed-dressing technique for the control of seed-borne fungi of rice variety Faro-29. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 12(3): 39-43.

Islam SS, Rahman MH, Hasan MJ, Ashadusjaman M, Khatun M (2007) Efficacy of fungicidal seed treat-ment in controlling Alternaria spp. in radish seed. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 2(5): 46-50.

Islam MS, Sarker MNI, Ali MA (2015). Effect of seed borne fungi on germinating wheat seed and their treatment with chemicals. International Journal of Natural and Social Sciences 2(1): 28-32.

ISTA (2003). International Rules for Seed Testing. International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

Kaya MD, Akdoğan G, Kulan EG, Dağhan H, Sari A (2019). Salinity tolerance classification of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) by cluster and principal component analysis. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17(2): 3849-3857.

Khairmar SJ, Kohire OD, Badguiar SL, Utpal D, Kamble HN (2013). Effect of fungicidal seed treatment and commercially available seed dressers on safflower seed germination and seedling vigour. Journal of Agriculture Research and Technology 38(1): 71-74.

Munkvold GP, O'mara JK (2002). Laboratory and growth chamber evaluation of fungicidal seed treatments for maize seedling blight caused by Fusarium species. Plant Disease 86(2): 143-150.

Pawar SV, Dey U, Munde VG, Sutar DS, Pal D (2013). Management of seed/soil borne diseases of safflower by chemical and biocontrol agents. African Journal of Microbiology Research 7(18): 1834-1837.

Pawar K, Mishra SP, Singh RK (2015). Efficacy of bioagents and fungicides against seed borne fungi of soybean. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 17(1): 77-81.

Saroja DGM (2012). Effect of fungicides on seed my-coflora and seed germination of chickpea. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 40(2): 150-152.

Singh DK, Jha MM (2003). Effect of fungicidal treatment against chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. Journal of Applied Biology 13(1/2): 41-45.

Solorzano CD, Malvick DK (2011). Effects of fungicide seed treatments on germination, population, and yield of maize grown from seed infected with fungal pathogens. Field Crops Research 122(3): 173-178.

Sudisha J, Niranjana SR, Umesha S, Prakash HS, Shetty HS (2006). Transmission of seed-borne infection of muskmelon by Didymella bryoniae and effect of seed treatments on disease incidence and fruit yield. Biological Control 37(2): 196-205.

Sultana N, Ghaffar A (2010). Effect of fungicides, microbial antagonists and oilcakes in the control of Fusarium solani, the cause of seed rot, seedling and root infection of bottle gourd, bitter gourd and cucumber. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(4): 2921-2934.

Sundaresh HN, Rangnathih KG, Janardan A, Vishwanatha SR (1973). Chemical seed treatment against seed borne fungi. Indian Phytopathology 26: 110-111.

Suresha V, Prasanna KPR, Pramila CK, Puttaraju TB, Balakrishna P, Siddaraja R, Surendra HS (2012). Germination and seed infection as influenced by seed treatment in vegetables. Agricultural Science Digest 32(4): 291-295.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Lisansı
Bu eser Creative Commons Alıntı-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.