Fertilization Biology Of Ancient Grape ‘Ekşi Kara’ (Vitis Vinifera L.)

Zeki Kara, Ali Sabır, Kevser Yazar, Osman Doğan, Ahmet Khaleel


In some institutions in Turkey, grape breeding programs such as hybridization breeding between superior genotypes of Vitis vinifera L. varieties or clonal selection of local genotypes are carried out. Antique and autochthone grape varieties are grown since ancient times in the 'Ekşi Kara' (Vitis vinifera L.), Konya-Karaman provinces and middle Taurus Mountains. Economic value is high in the production area. Well adapted in region. Indispensable in location than many other varieties. It is also promising for similar ecologies. The development requirements of the this very productive variety has been identified as a need. The flower type of the variety is functional female. A pollinator is a requirement for a good fruit set. Another ancient and autochthone grape variety, 'Gök Üzüm', is used as a pollen source in the region. Clusters and berry sizes in the 'Ekşi Kara' variety in the producer vineyards are closely related to hens and chicken berry development percentage, berry growth, weather conditions (precipitation) during flowering and / or pollination period due to the honey bee activity.

This research was carried out under the conditions of the producer vineyards in which selected in the head clone candidates were identified by the 'Ekşi Kara' grape variety clone selection project of the Selçuk University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture and the laboratory conditions. Fertilization biology of 220 selected head clone candidates were examined. The purpose of the study was to question the existence of self-fertile clones among the head clone candidates. For this purpose, the clone head candidates were self-pollinated in covered clusters, freely pollinated with ‘Gök Üzüm’ grape variety and pollens were tested for viability, pollen germination and tube growth of the germinated pollens.

All of the head clone candidates did not have any seeded fruit set in the covered flower clusters. Pollen grains were alive in different percentage but in laboratory conditions in all of the tested pollens were not germinate practically (less than 3%). A self-fertile clone candidate has not been identified. Honey bees and some other pollinator insects were the main elements of pollen transport from 'Gök Üzüm' to ‘Ekşi Kara’. The development of ampelographic and genetic databases will greatly contribute to genetic stocks that have not yet been evaluated in culturally diverse cultures or collections throughout the country, so that the correct identification of genotypes in general will be increased.


Grapevine, Vitis vinifera L., functional female flowers, self-pollination, pollen viability, honey bee

Full Text:



Abreu, I., Costa, I., Oliveira, M., Cunha, M., and de Castro, R. (2006). Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen. Protoplasma, 228(1), 131-135.

Bamzai, R., and Randhawa, G. (1967). Effects of certain growth substances and boric acid on germination, tube growth and storage of grape pollen. Vitis, 269-277.

Barrett, H., and Arisumi, T. (1952). Methods of pollen collection, emasculation, and pollination in fruit breeding. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

Bolat, İ., and Pirlak, L. (1999). An investigation on pollen viability, germination and tube growth in some stone fruits. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23(4), 383-388.

Carmona, M. J., Díaz-Riquelme, J., Lijavetzky, D., and Martínez-Zapater, J. M. (2009). Genome-wide analysis of MIKCC-type MADS box genes in grapevine. Plant Physiology, 149(1), 354-369.

Chkhartishvili, N., Vashakidze, L., Gurasashvili, V., and Maghradze, D. (2015). Type of pollination and indices of fruit set of some Georgian grapevine varieties. VITIS-Journal of Grapevine Research, 45(4), 153.

Dafni, A., and Firmage, D. (2000). Pollen viability and longevity: practical, ecological and evolutionary implications. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 222(1), 113-132.

Dane, F., Olgun, G., and Dalgiç, Ö. (2004). In vitro pollen germination of some plant species in basic culture medium. Journal of Cell & Molecular Biology, 3(2).

Dantas, A. C. d. M., Peixoto, M. L., Nodari, R. O., and Guerra, M. P. (2005). Germination of pollen and the development of pollen tubes in apple (Malus spp.). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 27(3), 356-359.

Eti, S. (1991). Determination of pollen viability and germination capability of some fruit species and cultivars by different in vitro tests. J Agric Fac Cukurova Univ, 6, 69-80.

Eti, S., Tangolar, S., Gok, S., and Ergenoglu, F. (1998). Investigations on pollen viability, germination capability and production and fruit set and quality of some grape varieties (in Turkish), National IV. Paper presented at the Viticulture Symposium, Yalova.

Gollmick, F. (1942). The longevity of vine pollen. Angew. Bot, 24, 221-232.

Kelen, M., and Demirtas, I. (2003). Pollen viability, germination capability and pollen production level of some grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.). Acta physiologiae plantarum, 25(3), 229-233.

Korkutal, İ., Bahar, E., Demir, K., Çelik, S., and Selen, U. (2004). Bazi üzüm çeşitlerinde (vitis vinifera l.) in vitro testler yardimiyla polen canliliği ve çimlenme yeteneklerinin incelenmesi. Trakya Univ J Sci, 5(2), 117-126.

Kozma, P., Nyéki, J., Soltész, M., and Szabó, Z. (2003). Floral biology, pollination and fertilisation in temperate zone fruit species and grape: Akadémiai Kiadó.

Liu, C., and Zhu, L. (1985). Studies on the pollen morphology and pollen germination morphology in grape cultivars. Acta Horticulturae Sinica (China).

Mayer, G. (1964). Investigations into the causes of different germinabilities of various Vitis species. Mitteilungen (Klosterneuberg, Austria) Ser. A, 14, 118-132.

Nagarajan, C., Krishnamurthi, S., and Rao, V. M. (1965). Storage studies with grape pollen. South Indian Hort, 13(1-2), 1-14.

Nebel, B., and Ruttle, M. (1936). Storage experiments with pollen of cultivated trees. Jour. Pom. Hort. Sci, 15, 347-359.

Olmo, H. (1942). Choice of parent as influencing seed germination in fruits. Paper presented at the Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.

Perveen, A., and Ali, S. (2010). Maintenance of pollen germination capacity of vitis vinifera L.(vitaceae). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(5), 3001-3004.

Pratt, C. (1971). Reproductive anatomy in cultivated grapes-a review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 22(2), 92-109.

Sharafi, Y. (2011). An investigation on the pollen germination and tube growth in some Prunus persica genotypes and cultivars. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(14), 2003-2007.

Sharafi, Y., and Bahmani, A. (2010). Study of pollen germination and tube growth in some Iranian Loquat cultivars and genotypes. Paper presented at the 3th International Symposium on Loquat.

Sharafi, Y., and Bahmani, A. (2011). In vitro study of pollen traits after short storage in some almond, apricot and sweet cherry favorable genotypes. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(2), 266-269.

Sharafi, Y., Karimi, M., and Ghorbanifar, M. (2010). Study of pollen tube growth, cross-compatibility and fruit set in some almond genotypes. African Journal of Plant Science, 4(5), 164-166.

Stosser, R., Hartman, W., and Anvari, S. (1996). General aspects of pollination and fertilization of pome and stone fruits. Acta Hort, 423, 15-21.

Szabó, Z. (2003). Floral biology, pollination and fertilisation in temperate zone fruit species and grape: Akadémiai Kiadó.

Taylor, L. P., and Hepler, P. K. (1997). Pollen germination and tube growth. Annual review of plant biology, 48(1), 461-491.

Vouillamoz, J. F., McGovern, P. E., Ergul, A., Söylemezoğlu, G., Tevzadze, G., Meredith, C. P., and Grando, M. S. (2006). Genetic characterization and relationships of traditional grape cultivars from Transcaucasia and Anatolia. Plant Genetic Resources: characterization and utilization, 4(02), 144-158.

Wang, J., Horiuchi, S., and Matsui, H. (1993). A histological study of seedlessness in seedless grapes. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 62(1), 1-7.

Weaver, R. J., and McCune, S. B. (1960). Further studies with gibberellin on Vitis vinifera grapes. Botanical Gazette, 121(3), 155-162.

Winkler, A. (1926). The influence of pruning on the germinability of pollen and the set of berries in Vitis vinifera. California Agriculture, 2(5), 107-124.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15316/SJAFS.2017.25


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Lisansı
Bu eser Creative Commons Alıntı-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.